A Loop shuttle vehicle on Avenue B on Treasure Island. The San Francisco skyline is visible in the background.

The Treasure Island Mobility Management Agency Board approved the Treasure Island Autonomous Vehicle Shuttle Pilot Project Final Evaluation Report at its June 25 meeting, following a staff presentation and consideration of the report by the TIMMA Committee on June 11.

The Treasure Island AV Shuttle Pilot project, called “Loop” was a demonstration of an on-island shuttle serving Treasure Island and was one of the first deployments of shared AV services providing passenger service on public roads in California. The pilot operated a free, electric, and wheel-chair accessible service on Treasure Island, with an attendant on board at all times, from August to December 2023. The purpose of the Loop pilot was to demonstrate a first-last mile circulator application of a shared, autonomous service, and to gauge its technical performance as well as public opinion. Originally planned to operate for nine months, the project concluded early due to ongoing construction on the Island. 

The Loop pilot was funded by a federal Advanced Transportation and Congestion Management Technologies Deployment grant, the Transportation Authority’s Prop K transportation sales tax, and a portion of an Innovative Deployments to Enhance Arterials Shared Automated Vehicles grant from the Metropolitan Transportation Commission.  

Throughout the project, the Loop project team conducted outreach and collected data to understand riders' perceptions and evaluate performance. The Loop route served popular sites on Treasure Island and operated daily from 9 a.m. to 6 p.m. at 30 minute frequencies. The project team conducted operational workshops with SFMTA Muni 25-line operators, first responders, and representatives from the disability community.

During the four-month pilot, the Loop served over 1100 riders, with ridership trending up over the pilot period. While the pilot presented a number of technical challenges in operation, the shuttle was consistently used for on-island trips and community perceptions around AVs generally remained neutral or slightly improved after interacting with the Loop.

Findings and Lessons Learned: 

  • Limitations with the competitiveness of the procurement process
  • Incident response and management can require significant resources 
  • Technology can be unreliable 
  • Complex operating environment presented risks to delivery 
  • Unique staffing and resourcing requirements needs
  • Demand exists for first and last mile solutions and AV shuttle public perception was generally positive 
  • Well specified milestone-based contract is appropriate for future pilots

Read the full Treasure Island Autonomous Vehicle Shuttle Pilot Project Final Evaluation Report (PDF) or watch the presentation to the Treasure Island Mobility Management Agency Board

Related Content


The Treasure Island Mobility Management Agency launched an autonomous shuttle service on Treasure Island from August to December 2023 to better understand how such a service could meet the needs of people traveling around the neighborhood.